The historical significance of the island is well reflected on the several museums to reveal all aspects of the local history, economy and cultural heritage. The Archaeological Museum of Chios
exhibits findings from around the island to refereeing to prehistoric till early Christian years, mainly from the cave of Agio Galas, the archaeological site of Emporio, the Fana area etc., such as sculptures, prehistoric pottery, jewellery, signs, bronze objects as well as transport amphorae of wine, including a letter of Alexander the great to the people of Chios. Roofed under a 19th century Ottoman mosque is the Byzantine Museum of Chios
, to exhibit finds from the the latest Christian till the late Byzantine period, including the Jewish and Muslim tombstones, sculptures, capitals, folk art as well as detached frescoes from the Byzantine church of Panagia Krinas. Within the castle of Chios is the Palace of Ioustiniani
, built during the 15th century as the headquarters of the Genoese empire. Although damaged by the Ottomans, the building was refurbished to house a fine collection of Byzantine frescoes, icons, ornate statues and a marble parapet with depictions of mythical animals. Chios is also known for its long naval power across the years until the current days, all depicted in the Maritime Museum of Chios
Located at the center of Chios Town. The naval tradition of the island is presented through paintings of sailing ships, miniature ships, boats parts and old photographs. Another aspect of the island’ s richness is highlighted at the Folk Museum of Kallimasia
to revive over forty former 19th and 20th century traditional trades and occupations, through this fine collection of tools and equipment as well as interior spaces of houses.
Chios due to its strategic position and long war history, boasts a number of astonishing castles the most impressive being the Castle of Chios,
to dominate the north side of the town. Built during the 9th century, it was later restored by conquerors such as the Genoese and the Ottomans to go through severe damages due to bombings, the 1881 earthquake and later demolitions of its south walls. After entering its Venetian south gate, visitors find the palace of Ioustiani to exhibit Byzantine finds featuring the remarkable murals of Panagia Krina, a water tank, and one of the remaining Ottoman towers and baths, along with a Turkish cemetery. Places of Christian and Ottoman worship such as the church of Saint George and the Bairakli Mosque, as well as a prison to hold the
70 elders of Chios after the Greek Revolution against the Turks all stand as a memory of the legendary past of the island. The Byzantine Castle of Volissos
is maintained in a very good condition, where six towers lie on its walls and features buildings, wells, and some small churches. Nearby the village Armolia is the Castle of Apolihnon,
built by the Genoese, bearing the symbol of authority of Justinian. Surrounded by olive and pine trees, the castle is ideally situtated on a top hill that overlooks the watchtowers of the surrounding area and houses double walls crowned with many towers, several rooms and a well. The Caste of Gria
lies next to the village Kardamyla, had a leading role towards the liberation of the island against the Turks, nowadays only featuring a 25meters wall and two towers.
The island of Chios features some amazing and historical Byzantine churches and monasteries, with Nea Moni
being the most remarkable one also protected by UNESCO, situated in the centre of the island. Built by Emperor Constantine IX at a spot where monks found the miraculous icon of Virgin Mary, after having the vision about the emperor’ s return on the throne. This vast land of 17 acres includes stone walls, a spectacularly constructed church of eight angles and a dome, a defensive tower, water storage tanks, while the monks’ cells house a museum. This monastery to dominate the entire Aegean Sea suffered distractions from the Ottomans where the monks martyred and damages from the earthquakes while the holly icon of Virgin many still surviving. The Metropolitan Church of Chios, Saint Victors proudly stands in the city centre, build on the remains of an old church built by the Genoese and destroyed by the Ottomans, with several latin inscriptions, a Russian-style chest on the Holy Table, the shrine of the protomatyr of Chios, St. Isidoros, the prelatic adornment of St Nectarios as well as other valuable utensils and objects.