Near the mouth of river Imvrassos is Hireon,
the most significant archaeological site of Samos, being the main area for worship on the island since antiquity. As it is thought, in some areas both deities of the East as well as the twelve Greek Gods were worshiped and Hera’s sacred temple was here. According to Herodotos, this temple was the biggest in Greece, still apparent at the remains counting 155 pillars of different sizes and types. Iera Odos (Holy Road) is another important part of the site, a 5km long paved road that connected the city with the temple, being decorated with various statues to be found at the Archaeological Museum of Vathi.
The museum consists of an old and a modern building to host findings from excavations that took place in the island to include a huge Kouros, along with statues, pieces of pottery, everyday tools and some weapons. Right next to the site of the ancient town of Pythagorion is the brand new Archaeological Museum of Pythagorion
that houses a fine collection of over 3.000 objects found at the location. Marble statues, coins, parts of buildings and temples, ceramic vases, jewellery and other items reveal the political importance of Samos during the ancient times, closely related with Asia Minor and mainland Greece. The little village of Mytilini houses the only paleontological museum of Greece, the Fossil Museum of Samos
that exhibits fossils and remains of prehistoric animals; most distinctive being the three toe local horse aged 13 million years old! A museum of great significance is the Natural History Museum of Samos,
located in the town of Mylinoi and housed in a church like building with an enormous garden to host the statue of Aristarchus, the famous ancient Samian mathematician and philosopher to initiate the fact that earth revolves around the sun. Five different sections of the museum: Paleontology, Mineralogy, Geology, Botanology and Zoology reveal in the best way samples of the natural wealth of the Aegean Sea, such as fossils of dwarf elephants, prehistoric lions, giraffes, rhinoceros and a horses. Finally, the N. Dimitriou Folklore Museum
gives a complete view of the islands’ life before the World War II presenting all the elements composing the tradition of Samos. Tools, instruments and equipment used for the daily agricultural activities and production processes by the locals, reveal a range of traditional professions, arts and crafts, some of which still practices across the island.
Samos is also home to some unique monuments such as one of the eight wonders of the ancient world, the Tunnel of Efpalinus,
named its architect and famous engineer of the ancient world built in the 6th
century B.C. Used as an aqueduct to store water in a place hidden from the potential enemy’s eyes, the tunnel was simultaneously opened at its two ends that after a 10 year construction finally met. Rectangular stones were used to create the tunnel while the ceramic pipes to lead the water into the tunnel still remain in perfect condition, to make the Tunnel of Eupalinus a distinguishing feature and a much frequented tourist spot in Samos. Another important part of the local history is depicted at the Castle of Lykourgos Logothetis
located at a hill of Pythagorion. Constructed during the 19th century from remains of various archaeological monuments of the island on an old acropolis, the castle served as the leading headquarter towards the revolution against the Turks. The final victory made the locals built a church right next to it, to make a site of marvellous contrast. Finally, Samos boasts a number Byzantine and pre-Byzantine chapels monasteries, the most distinctive being Panagia Spiliani Monastery
nearby Pythagorion. The monastery took its name after the small church inside a large cave dedicated to Mother Mary. It is believed that the same church has been a place of worship since antiquity as it features parts of an ancient temple, while Pythagoras lived and practiced here. The church features a marble icon of the Virgin Mary, which according to the legend was broken during an attempt to steal it and after locals put its pieces together, the icon nowadays is believed to be miraculous.